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JPE, Vol. 18, No. 4, July 2018
Transient Characteristics and Physical Constraints of Grid-Tied Virtual Synchronous Machines
Chang Yuan, Chang Liu, Dan Yang, Ruibing Zhou, and Niang Tang
Area Analysis, Modeling and Control
Abstract In modern power systems, distributed generators (DGs) result in high stress on system frequency stability. Apart from the intermittent nature of DGs, most DGs do not contribute inertia or damping to systems. As a result, a new control method referred to as a virtual synchronous machine (VSM) has been proposed, which brought new characteristics to inverters such as synchronous machines (SM). DGs employing an energy storage system (ESS) provide inertia and damping through VSM control. Meanwhile, energy storage presents some physical constraints in the VSM implementation level. In this paper, a VSM mathematical model is built and analyzed. The dynamic responses of the output active power are presented when a step change in the frequency occurs. The influences of the inertia constant, damping factor and operating point on the ESS volume margins are investigated. In addition, physical constraints are proposed based on these analyses. The proposed physical constraints are simulated using PSCAD/EMTDC software and tested through RTDS experiment. Both simulation and RTDS test results verify the analysis.
Keyword Energy storage,Parameters setting range,Physical constraints,Virtual synchronous machine (VSM)
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